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Functions and Structure of Human Kidney

Functions and Structure of Human Kidney

The main functions of the kidneys are processing the blood and remove waste and excess water through the urine. Without these organs, toxins (harmful substances) in the bloodstream would accumulate, which impede the functioning of the body.


The kidneys are located below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine, while the right is usually located below the left, because the liver is located above it; They are the size of a fist, bean-shaped, and its weight is approximately 160 grams each.

Kidney structure comprising:

Renal capsule: transparent, fibrous and continuous with the outer layer of the ureter lining kidney membrane.

Renal cortex or bark: of grainy, receives 90% of blood flow to the kidney function. It portions of nephrons, basic functional units of the kidneys (in charge of cleaning the blood plasma and produce urine, among other tasks) are located. Each kidney contains about one million nephrons.

Medulla: composed Malpighian pyramids whose apex points towards the renal pelvis. Some pyramids grow fused, so that approximately 8 vertices (papillae), which are full of small holes through which the urine is drained and empty into the chalices, which in turn flow into the renal pelvis are formed. Within this area the loop of Henle and collecting duct (portions of the nephron), with which they can be concentrated or diluted urine is located.

Ureter: every day, a healthy person’s kidneys process about 200 thousand liters of blood to remove 1.5 to 2 liters of waste products and water, which become urine, which flows to the bladder through the ureter.

You gotta know now that this scheme kidney, know that the blood comes to a tissue through the renal artery from the aorta, and exits through the renal vein, which empties into the inferior vena cava.


Among the functions of the kidneys it includes control body water balance also release hormones that produce red blood cells.It maintains and regulate blood pressure and maintain calcium level in the body.

Either by birth defect or because of surgery, some people live with only one kidney, as this can replace the absent renal function body.

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