Bone tumors are rare. They are more frequent bone metastases secondary tumors in other organs, particularly of the breast and prostate.
Bone tumors are most common in children under 15 and seniors with slightly more often in males.
The classification of bone tumors is complex. In general, tumors are divided into benign and malignant tumors.
Benign tumors are composed of cells of normal tissue, they are slow growing and do not invade neighboring structures.
Malignant tumors the cells are dissimilar from normal tissue to produce quickly attack nearby structures and can reproduce giving away metastasis.
Among the benign bone tumors include osteoma, the chondroma, osteochondroma, lymphangioma and hemangioma.
The most common malignant tumors are numerous myelomas, osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma.
How it is produced
Abnormal cell proliferation and increased bone metabolism has been linked with increased frequency in older children with bone tumors growth in the femur and tibia. Previous radiation is also considered because of bone tumors as well as malignant tumors previous benign.
The symptoms are very nonspecific. The pain may not be severe, even if the tumor is slow-growing, may be missing. When there is pain, it is localized and typically appears at night.
In some cases increased volume is produced by tumor growth or deformation by the presence of a pathological fracture (fracture secondary to trauma or without minimal trauma) which in some cases is the first symptom.
When symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, fatigue and fever appear, you have to think about the existence of a malignant tumor.
In general, different types of tumors occur more frequently in certain age bands and also certain locations.
The diagnosis of bone tumors is based on clinical, imaging tests and characteristics of the cells.
Plain radiography is the first test to apply. It shows the location, the boundaries, the shape and density of the tumor.A benign tumor sample with well defined normal bone structure. A malignant tumor invades and destroys the bone that has occurred; lacking the normal contours has not clear boundaries and invades surrounding tissue. It may be bone forming (bone formation), giving images radiological characteristics as “rising sun” in “onion layers” or osteolytic “hairy edge” and (destroyer of bone).
MRI is the most accurate test to determine the extent of bone tumor. It allows defining precisely the edges of the tumor and its spread. It is the commitment of choice when adjacent soft tissues is suspected.
Computed tomography is useful for preoperative evaluation of tumors, providing information on the size of the tumor mass, location and relationship with adjacent muscles.
Tumor biopsy is done with fine needle aspiration (FNA) or open biopsy, according to the characteristics of the tumor.
In the case of bone metastases, the patient study addresses the search for the primary tumor.
Surgery is the treatment of choice for most tumors, whether benign or malignant. Some benign tumors that are not operated then require regular image controls to monitor progress.
In malignant tumors, treatment is individualized according to the uniqueness of the tumor and its spread. Surgery is the treatment of choice accompanying chemotherapy or before or after it.
Radiation therapy is used in case of marrow involvement by the existence of metastasis following surgery or as palliative treatment of bone metastases nontax surgery in order to improve pain.