Osteoporosis is a thinning and weakening of the bones. If this deterioration is not treated, the skeleton ends up being extremely fragile and tend to break some bones (or fracturing) with very little trauma.
Although the process of loss produced little by little since the mid-thirties, it is so slow that may Bone with osteoporosis passes long before we realize it.
In general, women are at greater risk of osteoporosis than men. This is because after menopause women experience a rapid loss of bone, as a result of declining estrogen formation.
Bone loss is usually a painless until a fracture occurs. Therefore, they often ignore women with osteoporosis until suddenly suffer an unexpected and painful fracture when they have 50, 60 or 70 years.
The most common way a woman may discover you have osteoporosis is when suffering a broken wrist or hip after a seemingly minor fall. Other women lose size, develop a dorsal hump or observe that clothes no longer fit as they age well.
This occurs when the vertebrae (bones of the spine) are so fragile that a normal daily movement, such as coughing or lifting a weight, causes collapse. This collapse can also be very painful.
Osteoporotic fractures, especially hip and spine, often produce pain and disability. While wrist fracture usually heals with little residual deformity, many patients do not fully recover from a broken hip or vertebral.
The resulting disabilities can affect a person’s ability to work or care for their families, and can be severe enough to force it to rely on other people; often they require help from family or care of a health professional in the home. All patients with hip fracture will require assistance to walk for several months, and about half require walkers or canes to move around your house or out for the rest of life.
After menopause, most women are at increased risk of osteoporosis, although certain factors related to lifestyle, heredity or disease may increase the risk.
Causes and Risk Factors
Osteoporosis occurs when the body stops to form new bone, or when very old bone is reabsorbed by the body, or both.
Semblance of a normal spine, to which they are superimposed appearances spines with moderate and severe osteoporosis.VertebralesEl fractures calcium and phosphate are two minerals essential for normal bone formation and throughout youth, the bones are produced by using these minerals. If calcium absorption is insufficient or if the body does not absorb enough calcium from the diet, can affect bone formation and bone tissues.
As people age, calcium and phosphate may be reabsorbed back into the body, which causes the bone tissue weaker. Both situations can cause weak and brittle bones.
Despite being the result of the interaction of multiple factors Osteoporosis is a widespread custom in certain types etiologically classify as if each answer to a single causal factor. Although this is incorrect, it is accepted by useful from a practical point of view.
The classification establishes two types: primary osteoporosis and secondary osteoporosis. We speak of secondary osteoporosis, when caused by a disease or concomitant process, such as: prolonged treatment with corticosteroids, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, bone tumors.
Primary osteoporosis refers to that which occurs associated with the normal aging process. For women, it is more important and concomitant begins before menopause.
This information will help you identify the factors that may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis and changes in your lifestyle can help reduce that risk.
If necessary, your doctor will discuss with you other options to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
In multifactorial diseases not usually speak of “causes” of disease, but of “risk factors”. The list of risk factors for osteoporosis is long (about eighty have been described), then listed the most important:
Age (osteoporosis is more common in the last third of life).
Genetic factors: Sex (osteoporosis is more common in women); race (more likely the white race), family nature (higher incidence in osteoporotic daughters of mothers), hereditary diseases (osteogenesis imperfect); constitution (thinness).
Hormonal factors: Time of exposure to sex hormones (the incidence of osteoporosis is higher if menopause is precocious menarche is late, there is no amenorrheic potholes or hypogonadism), hyperthyroidism; hyperparathyroidism, hypercortisolism, type 1 diabetes.
Hygienic-dietary and lifestyle factors: Apart from calcium and vitamin D; nutritional status (thin people are more prone to osteoporosis, it is believed that adipose tissue is a source of estrogen, and because the weight is a mechanical stimulus to the skeleton); exercise (mechanical overload promotes bone formation and inhibits bone resorption); snuff and alcohol, accelerate the development of osteoporosis.
No endocrinological diseases: malabsorption, liver disease, inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis), myeloma.
Treatments: Corticosteroids, cytostatics, anticonvulsants, heparin.
Bone mass that has a person at a particular time depends on which once had to complete development and subsequently losses. Both events are determined by the mentioned factors. It is considered that in the production of full bone mass the most important genetic factors are involved. In contrast, the rate of bone loss genetic factors seems to have acquired minor.
Riggs and Melton proposed the following formula to summarize the factors responsible for bone mass of an individual at a time of his life:
Q = R – (+ menopause + sporadic aging factors)
Where Q = actual bone mass and I = peak bone mass. The formula underscores the importance of aging and menopause compared to other factors, the authors describe as “sporadic” or occasional. It also provides a clear picture of osteoporosis is the result of joint action of various factors.