Stains or hyper pigmentation are unintended consequences of sun exposure, and this is the time to fight them, the fall, when the radiation is lower. In the fall, people often become aware of the damage the sun has caused on the skin during the summer months. It is the right time to combat the unwanted spots (hyper pigmentation).
Hyper pigmentation is caused by increased melanin. This substance absorbs and disperses ultraviolet radiation, which absorbed is transformed into color. This is the main reason for skin spots, especially in the summer when radiation is high. The spots are accentuated with sun exposure but it should be considered that other sources of light can stain the skin.
Sunscreen should be placed inside the home if fluorescent lamps or tubes are lit or if the sun is shining on the windows and people are near them.
There are a number of factors that cause hyper pigmentation.
- Some medications
- Sequela of infections
- Inflammatory diseases such as acne
- Waxing or shaving
- After an allergy has occurred
- The genetic predisposition
- Autoimmune and endocrine diseases
- The abrasions or peels when they are made without taking the necessary precautions
- Cosmetics, like perfumes. This is observed mainly in the neck area.
- The causes mentioned are exacerbated by the incidence of the sun.
The highest photo types (darker skins) are more prone than light skins to stain especially if they have excess sun exposure.
With the passage of time more spots appear and the existing ones are accentuated. They are increasingly difficult to clarify.
Hyper pigmentation appears more frequently in areas that are more exposed to the sun because they do not wear clothing (face, hands and neckline). More spots are seen in the areas where there was excess sun; on the shoulders or back. These are places where there may have been some kind of “burn”. It is common to appear over the years in the legs.
The regions that are commonly exposed to the sun have a melanocyte density up to twice as high.
Melanocyte are also found in the dermis (second layer of the skin), a difficult place to reach with peelings and depigmenting creams.
All procedures to eliminate hyper pigmentation can begin in the fall and should end at the latest in the month of October.
After all the procedures to remove stains, from the softest to the most aggressive, you should use at least a factor of sun protection SPF 50+ and replace it several times a day. Of course do not expose yourself to the sun.
Sun protection: It is the number one treatment. It should be applied every day of the year, even when it is cloudy because the rays have the ability to pierce the skin.
Application of products with key active ingredients: A large amount is used. The most used and effective are hydroquinone and retinoic acid. But mixtures are also made with glycolic or mandelic acid. Other depigmenting agents that can be used are kojic acid, azelaic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or phytic acid. These acids are formulated in creams that are used in the home, but always under medical indication and supervision.
Peelings: It is a peeling or exfoliation. It consists of the use of different chemical substances: mandelic, glycolic and retinoic acids, among others. They can also be physical peels that are made to renew mechanically in the most superficial layers of the epidermis. Thus the tone will look more homogeneous.
Micro dermabrasion with diamond tip: It is an exfoliation that is carried out through micro crystals of aluminum oxide. This removes the most superficial cells of the skin for renewal. Then the dead cells are aspirated. This improves tone, texture and promotes cell regeneration.
Light pulsed with AFT technology (advanced fluorescent technology): Each AFT pulse limits the maximum power to the therapeutic range required. In this way it heats the area to be treated precisely. The objective of removing the pigmentations is thus achieved. Between 3 and 4 sessions are needed at 1 month intervals.
Q-Switched: To treat skins with clear spots or with melasma. The treatment consists of a laser beam that fragments the pigment into much smaller particles, allowing it to be removed naturally. The method is very effective and achieves remarkable results in 4 or 6 sessions.
All mentioned procedures must be carried out when the radiation from the sun is not high. The person should be protected with sunscreens, at least 50+. It is important to remember that “stains have memory” and that they can return to some extent with sun exposure. For this reason it is so important to carry out the correct treatment and to protect oneself properly.